Category: Horticulture–xyJI4sQ

Courtesy: GHung’s Blog, WordPress.

A lot of sunshine, good soil, rainshowers, and care promise  plenty of Golden and Red Delicious Apples from Stark Bros. at my Lombard garden for the harvest in 2012.


Golden and Red Delicious Apples


Apple Orchard Trees For Harvesting


Stark Bros. Golden and Red Apples
Courtesy:  GHung
Village of Lombard, York Township,
in DuPage County, Illinois USA
Gardenia’s Garden in Lombard

One day on Earth, the Kennedy Roses and its long stemming branches were fire-torched while the front door had been scorched burning off the wood varnish; the porch door white paint started to crack and peel off from the heat impact of a human pyromaniac wielding a flame burning fire torch at the corner of 502 South Westmore-Meyers and Washington Boulevard in District 5, one block southeast from St. Pius X Catholic Church in the Village of Lombard, York Township, Illinois 60148-3028 USA.

The Lombard arsonist walked with a fire torch burning anything that caught its human eyes. The sensation lilacs by the wooden picket fence had already bloomed for Lilac Time and became permanently damaged by the flame hitting torch. The lilacs stopped blooming ever after the fire torch terrorist scorched its branches in the Village of Lombard, DuPage County, Illinois USA.

The day the Lombard fire-torch terrorist walked along Westmore-Meyers Road in the Lilac Town, all neighbors and the community were in terror in District 5.

For some obvious heinous hate reason, the Lombard pyromaniac ended his fire vengeance at the corner of 502 S. Westmore-Meyers Road and Washington Boulevard by the private real estate property of Mr. Roberto Hung, his daughter and son-in-law who had served in the USS Platte Fire Prevention Squad aboard the oil-refueling Navy transporter based in Norfolk, Virginia USA.

The Lombard fire-torch arsonist was an international terrorist targetting resident homeowners who were working all day, away from home, like Mr. Roberto Hung, his daughter, and son-in-law.

Mr. Roberto Hung and surviving family have all been Illinois Victims of Heinous Hate Crimes in District 5, York Township, DuPage County, Illinois 60148-3028 USA. These Lombard resident homeowners have not yet been compensated nor restituted for Lombard criminal disaster damages and losses as Victims of International Terrorism and Heinous Hate Crimes after purchasing private Lombard real estate property in DuPage County, Illinois USA.

Abuse of Human Rights in Housing Under The Law in the Village of Lombard, DuPage County, Illinois USA

According to the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, International human rights law recognizes everyone’s right to an adequate standard of living, including adequate housing. Despite the central place of this right within the global legal system, well over a billion people are not adequately housed. Millions around the world live in life- or health-threatening conditions, in overcrowded slums and informal settlements, or in other conditions which do not uphold their human rights and their dignity.

Further millions are forcibly evicted, or threatened with forced eviction, from their homes every year.

Adequate housing was recognized as part of the right to an adequate standard of living in the 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights and in the 1966 International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights. Other international human rights treaties have since recognized or referred to the right to adequate housing or some elements of it, such as the protection of one’s home and privacy.

The right to adequate housing is relevant to all States, as they have all ratified at least one international treaty referring to adequate housing and committed themselves to protecting the right to adequate housing through international declarations, plans of action or conference outcome documents. Several constitutions protect the right to adequate housing or outline the State’s general responsibility to ensure adequate housing and living conditions for all. Courts from various legal systems have also adjudicated cases related to its enjoyment, covering, for instance, forced evictions, tenant protection, discrimination in the housing sphere or access to basic housing-related services.

Increased international attention has also been paid to the right to adequate housing, including by human rights treaty bodies, regional human rights mechanisms and the Commission on Human Rights (now

replaced by the Human Rights Council), which created the mandate of “Special Rapporteur on adequate housing as a component of the right to an adequate standard of living” in 2000. These initiatives have helped to clarify the scope and content of the right to adequate housing.

This Fact Sheet starts by explaining what the right to adequate housing is, illustrates what it means for specific individuals and groups, and then elaborates upon States’ related obligations. It concludes with an overview of national, regional and international accountability and monitoring mechanisms.


This joint OHCHR/UN-Habitat Fact Sheet is the second in a series of joint publications by the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights with other United Nations partners to focus on economic, social and cultural rights. The first was the Fact Sheet on the Right to Health, issued jointly with the World Health Organization, and a joint fact sheet with the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations on the right to food is forthcoming.



A. Key aspects of the right to adequate housing

The United Nations Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights has underlined that the right to adequate housing should not be interpreted narrowly. Rather, it should be seen as the right to live somewhere in security, peace and dignity. The characteristics of the right to adequate

housing are clarified mainly in the Committee’s general comments No. 4 (1991) on the right to adequate housing and No. 7 (1997) on forced evictions.1

• The right to adequate housing contains freedoms. These freedoms include:

 Protection against forced evictions and the arbitrary destruction

and demolition of one’s home;

 The right to be free from arbitrary interference with one’s home,

privacy and family; and

 The right to choose one’s residence, to determine where to live

and to freedom of movement.

• The right to adequate housing contains entitlements. These

entitlements include:

 Security of tenure;

 Housing, land and property restitution;

 Equal and non-discriminatory access to adequate housing;

 Participation in housing-related decision-making at the national

and community levels.

• Adequate housing must provide more than four walls and a

roof. A number of conditions must be met before particular forms

of shelter can be considered to constitute “adequate housing.”

These elements are just as fundamental as the basic supply and

availability of housing. For housing to be adequate, it must, at a

minimum, meet the following criteria:

1 General comments are adopted by the treaty bodies based on their monitoring experience.

They offer expert guidance to States on their obligations arising under a particular treaty.


Security of tenure: housing is not adequate if its occupants do

not have a degree of tenure security which guarantees legal

protection against forced evictions, harassment and other


Availability of services, materials, facilities and infrastructure:

housing is not adequate if its occupants do not have safe drinking

water, adequate sanitation, energy for cooking, heating, lighting,

food storage or refuse disposal.

Affordability: housing is not adequate if its cost threatens or

compromises the occupants’ enjoyment of other human rights.

Habitability: housing is not adequate if it does not guarantee

physical safety or provide adequate space, as well as protection

against the cold, damp, heat, rain, wind, other threats to health

and structural hazards.

Accessibility: housing is not adequate if the specific needs of

disadvantaged and marginalized groups are not taken into


Location: housing is not adequate if it is cut off from employment

opportunities, health-care services, schools, childcare centres

and other social facilities, or if located in polluted or dangerous


Cultural adequacy: housing is not adequate if it does not respect

and take into account the expression of cultural identity.

• Protection against forced evictions. Protection against forced

evictions is a key element of the right to adequate housing and is

closely linked to security of tenure.

Forced evictions are defined as the “permanent or temporary

removal against their will of individuals, families and/or communities

from the homes and/or land which they occupy, without the

provision of, and access to, appropriate forms of legal or other

protection.”2 According to the United Nations Human Settlements

Programme (UN-Habitat), at least 2 million people in the world are

forcibly evicted every year, while millions are threatened with forced


2 General comment 7, which goes on to note that “the prohibition on forced evictions

does not, however, apply to evictions carried out by force in accordance with the law

and in conformity with the provisions of the International Covenants on Human Rights”

(para. 4).

3 UN-Habitat, Global Report on Human Settlements 2007: Enhancing Urban Safety and

Security (Nairobi, 2007).


Forced evictions are carried out in a variety of circumstances and for

a variety of reasons, for instance, to make way for development and

infrastructure projects, urban redevelopment or city beautification,

or prestigious international events, as a result of conflicts over land

rights, armed conflicts or societal patterns of discrimination. Forced

evictions tend to be violent and disproportionately affect the poor,

who often suffer further human rights violations as a result. In

many instances, forced evictions compound the problem they were

ostensibly aimed at solving.

Regardless of their cause, forced evictions may be considered a

gross violation of human rights and a prima facie violation of the

right to adequate housing. Large-scale evictions can in general be

justified only in the most exceptional circumstances and only if they

take place in accordance with the relevant principles of international


Safeguards in the case of evictions

If eviction may be justifiable, because the tenant persistently fails

to pay rent or damages the property without reasonable cause,

the State must ensure that it is carried out in a lawful, reasonable

and proportional manner, and in accordance with international

law. Effective legal recourses and remedies should be available to

those who are evicted, including adequate compensation for any

real or personal property affected by the eviction. Evictions should

not result in individuals becoming homeless or vulnerable to further

human rights violations.

In general, international human rights law requires Governments

to explore all feasible alternatives before carrying out any eviction,

so as to avoid, or at least minimize, the need to use force. When

evictions are carried out as a last resort, those affected must be

afforded effective procedural guarantees, which may have a

deterrent effect on planned evictions. These include:

 An opportunity for genuine consultation;

 Adequate and reasonable notice;

 Availability of information on the proposed eviction in reasonable


 Presence of Government officials or their representatives during

an eviction;


 Proper identification of persons carrying out the eviction;

 Prohibition on carrying out evictions in bad weather or at night;

 Availability of legal remedies;

 Availability of legal aid to those in need to be able to seek judicial


Other international human rights treaties that recognize the right

to adequate housing

• The 1951 Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees (art. 21)

• The International Labour Organization’s 1962 Convention No. 117 concerning

Basic Aims and Standards of Social Policy (art. 5 (2))

• The 1965 International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of

Racial Discrimination (art. 5 (e)(iii))

• The 1966 International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (art. 17)

• The 1979 Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination

against Women (arts. 14 (2) and 15 (2))

• The 1989 Convention on the Rights of the Child (arts. 16 (1) and

27 (3))

• The International Labour Organization’s 1989 Convention No. 169 concerning

Indigenous and Tribal Peoples in Independent Countries (arts.

14, 16 and 17)

• The 1990 International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All

Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families (art. 43 (1)(d))

• The 2006 Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (arts. 9

and 28)

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