Category: Air Flight



On September 2,1996, my Father completed cash payment for our Lombard Historic Brick Bungalow built in 1927 on George Hornbeck’s parcel subdivision owned by Mrs. Ahrens at 504 S. Westmore-Meyers Road related to Stebens Carpenter Handyman , adjoining the driveway and our backyard separated by a wooden picket fence.  I witnessed the full cash payment with my Father at the First State Bank of Maple Park in Kane County, Illinois USA.  Since my Father, I, and Nathan were all working full-time in 1996 as Lombard resident homeowners and taxpayers, life in the Lilac Village was costing us a lot more money, work, and suburban DuPage County expenses, as well as Illinois State fees, and U.S. federal taxes to us than were credited to other Lombard families in District 5, York Township in DuPage County, Illinois USA. In 1996, Mr. Roberto Hung Juris Doctor spent a lot of money in cash to pay Lombard real estate property taxes, mortgage, and DuPage County in York Township, Illinois.
I also spent a lot of cash in Lombard, purchasing electronics, computer equipment, and business professional memberships and associations for employment purposes. I was also travelling in the USA, Canada, France, and Germany. Since I was working the entire day, I would come back to the Lombard home late at night.
I had to travel to Berlin, Germany for the Languages and The Media Conference sponsored by the Federation of International Translators (FIT) during November 1996.
From O’Hare Airport (ORD), the Trans-Atlantic Flight was scheduled to leave at 8:00 p.m. Nathan dropped me off at the O’Hare International Terminal and did not wait for me to board the American Airlines flight to Heathrow Airport in London, England, in the United Kingdom.
When I got to the AA Terminal around 7:00 p.m., the intercom announced that due to engine failure in one of the propeller wings, the Trans-Atlantic flight to Heathrow Airport in London would be delayed and arrival time into Berlin would also be affected the next day. American Airlines was re-scheduling all international flight connections at Heathrow London and Berlin Germany.
The AA new engine overhaul took four (4) hours to be installed by Midnight. So, I had to wait at O’Hare International Airport in Chicago in order to make the Trans-Atlantic flight to Heathrow Airport in London UK before I could get to the InterContinental Hotel in Berlin, Germany.
All the passengers were edgy, irritated, and upset over AA faulty engine wing propeller for this Trans-Atlantic Flight, especially when AA promised a “complete new engine overhaul by Midnight”.
I wondered why at the last minute, before departure, AA had a faulty engine on a wing propeller for a Trans-Atlantic flight to Heathrow London. The thoughts and memories of airplanes failing in mid-flight across the Atlantic reminded me of the perils in travelling overseas.
Four (4) hours afterwards, I was also wondering if the new engine overhaul for the wing propeller would be completed successfully. The AA stewardess called all the passengers to board exactly by 12:00 a.m. At Midnight, I was on my way to Heathrow London with breakfast ready for my overseas flight to Europe.
With all the delays and excitement, I did not sleep at all during the whole experience. Aboard the Trans-Atlantic flight to Heathrow London, the AA Captain announced that due to the 4-hour delay, all itineraries to European cities had been changed to adjust connecting flight at Heathrow Airport in London, England UK. I had to get through the Customs Gatekeeper at Heathrow International Airport in London before I could catch my connecting British Airways flight to Berlin, Germany. Fortunately, I never get lost at European international airports, so after Customs at Heathrow London, I found the British Airways terminal for a cross-flight to Berlin, Germany. By Noon, I was aboard British Airways without my AA ORD luggage…which had not made the connecting flight with me. A British lunch was served to calm my Trans-Atlantic flight jitters, jetlag, and European-travel excitement. Overall, I made my way through the Trans-Atlantic flight to Heathrow London without any problems, in spite of the AA new engine overhaul for the wing propeller and the 4-hour delay to make the British Airways flight connection to Berlin, Germany. The only thing was that my AA luggage did not have the same luck in transit at Heathrow International Airport in London.



Long before the arrival of the Spaniards to the Caribbean, the island of Cuba was populated by Native American Indian tribes, that is to say, “siboneyes“, who lived in the caves and lived from hunting and fishing; “taínos” who excelled in clay pottery and practiced agriculture; and “guanajatebeyes” who were nomads and populated the western coasts.

On October 27, 1492, Christopher Columbus sighted Cuba on his first voyage.  The next day, Columbus landed, christening the port with the Christian name of “San Salvador“, “Savior”, where he touched land and, naming “Juana“, the island which he thought to be a continent.  Between 1508 and 1509, Sebastián de Ocampo navigated around the island and in 1511, Don Diego Velázquez de Cuéllar initiated the conquest of the same land.  In 1512, the city of Baracoa, at the northern tip of Cuba was founded; in 1513, Bayamo on the southwestern side; and in 1514, Trinidad in the southern middle, Sancti Spiritus, Santa María del Puerto Príncipe, Santiago de Cuba, and La Habana were established as the first seven (7) cities in the New World for the Americas.
 
The indigenous population was divided out to the entrusted and appointed landholders, “encomendaderos“.  However, abusive work, hard labor, and disease from the Old World, dominated the Native American population which motivated the introduction of African black slave labor on the island of Cuba.
The Christian Catholic King of Spain, Don Fernando II, ruler of Aragón, became married to Doña Isabel of Castilla, with equity in the exercise of power.  In the 15th century, at the beginning of 1482, the King and Queen of Spain developed military campaigns for the Reconquest of the Moorish lands which escalated to the seize of Granada, in Andalusía, Spain, circa 1492.  During the same year, the Muslim Arabs surrendered in Granada and Seville to end eight (8) centuries of Islamic control which sealed the Christian conquest for the Spanish territories.  Simultaneously, the discovery and exploration of the New World in the Americas by Don Christopher Columbus, occurred during the same times, in 1492. 
 
Christopher Columbus was a Spanish-Italian sea explorer and navigator (who was probably a native of Genoa, born in 1451 and lived until 1506, in Valladolid, Spain).  At the time, Columbus believed that in order to arrive at the East of the world, there was a route by sea to the West.  With the protection of Don Juan Pérez, Prior of La Rabida, Christopher Columbus was granted the signature for Capitulations of the Holy Faith, according to which, Columbus received the title of Admiral, Viceroy, and Governor of the lands he discovered in the New World.
 
On the first voyage, Columbus sailed from Puerto de Palos on August 3rd, at the command of the Spanish galleons “carabelas“, la Pinta, la Niña y la Santa María, and arrived to the island of Guanahaní, “San Salvador“, on October 12, 1492.
 
Christopher Columbus discovered Cuba on October 27, 1492, five hundred and twenty (520) years ago, and the island christened “La Española“, Hispaniola, also known by the Amerindian name of “Quisqueya” or Haití, where he established the Spanish fort Nativity.  On December 5, 1492, Columbus discovered the island known today as the Dominican Republic and Haití.  Afterwards, he returned to Palos and was received with triumph in Barcelona, Spain.
 
Upon the return to Spain from the discovery of the New World in the Americas by Christopher Columbus, the Spanish Catholic monarchs arranged before Pope Alexander VI the concession of the ecclesiastical Alexandrian edicts which assigned to the Spain the new territories in the New World. Since Portugal had closed the route to the spices for Castilla, Spain, Christopher Columbus had a projected mission to reach the Orient, in the East, by way of the Western (Occident) which was accepted and sponsored by the Catholic King and Queen, reigning monarchs of Spain.
 
Columbus’ accounts of his voyages in the New World remain in the Archives of the Indies as the documented description of an ethnographer, ethnologist, and ethnolinguist in the Americas.  Christopher Columbus provided and recorded news and first impressions about the native indigenous inhabitants in the Caribbean and of the lands he discovered along the way.
 
The Republic of Cuba is an insular state of Central America.  Cuba represents the island known for the same name of the country, in addition to the island of Youth or Isla de Pinos, other smaller islands in its surroundings, and some 1,600 adjoining islets known as keys or “cayos”, such as Key West, also known as Cayo Hueso.
 
Cuba can be found in the middle of the Caribbean, between the Strait of Florida and the old Channel of the Bahamas to the North; the eastern section of Cuba faces the Windward Channel; the southern littoral looks upon the Caribbean Sea or the Antilles; west of the Yucatán Peninsula and northwest toward the Gulf of México–only 99 miles from the United States of America, close to the states of Florida, Texas, Louisiana, and Alabama in the south.
 
Geographically, the island of Cuba extends in the shape of an arc from the northwest to the southeast with a longitude of 1,255 kilometers, from the tip of Cabo San Antonio to the point of Maisí.  
 
The topography of Cuba is made of predominant plains or hills, with the exception of the mountain ranges of the Sierra Maestra to the southeast, which features the elevation called Pico Turquino, the highest point of view in Cuba, at 1,974 meters in altitude, and other smaller mountainous extensions, such as the Sierra del Escambray at the center of Cuba with the Pico San Juan at 1,056 meters in altitude, and the mountain chain known as “cordilleras de los Organos”, which hardly rise above 690 meters in contrast to the elevation for the Pan de Guajabón.
 
The Cuban seacoasts are flanked by a great number of islands and islets.  These maritime keys emerge up to considerable distances from the Cuban littoral in the Caribbean.
 
Cuba has more than 200 rivers, generally not long enough, but with impetuous currents.  Among the major Cuban rivers is El Cauto which floods the surroundings areas of Santiago de Cuba during tropical storms, hurricanes, and cyclones, that is to say “maritime twisters”, and is required to be controlled by a river dam, “la represa del Cauto”.  In addition, there are the rivers called Cuyaguateje, Sagua La Grande, Sagua La Chica, Aguabama, etc.
 
The Cuban climate is softened by tropical and maritime breezes.  
The Spanish colonial city of Santiago de Cuba was founded in 1514, nestled among a series of hills near the mountain range of the Sierra Maestra, in the heart of the eastern municipal district of Oriente.
 
The architectural design of the building constructions have been adapted typically over time to the mountainous topography and frequently, the lower back rooms of the houses are found at a lower level than the front upper rooms of the same houses in Cuba.       
 
Spain called Cuba “the Pearl of the Antilles”.      
 
Original Translation into English from Spanish Source:  2000 Nuevo Espasa Ilustrado.  Diccionario Enciclopédico.  Espasa Calpe, S.A. (1999), España

Consulting Media Arts Communications©2012 Gardenia Hung. 

All Rights Reserved.


“Interpreting and Translation as Communication Processes for the 21st Century”                                                          
Communications, Languages & Culture, Inc. 
ABSTRACT 
This proposal will present “Interpreting and Translation as Communication(s) Processes for the 21st Century” in order to associate the status of interpreting and translation to existing communication processes and establish the future of the interpreting and translation profession within the field of communication(s) using the Transactional Model of Communication (Barnlund, 1970) as a frame of reference.  Interpreting and translation are both expressions of communication processes in a different way, shape, and form.  Consequently, interpreting and translation are to be included, considered, and taught as related disciplines to the field of communication(s) for the future of the profession. The transactional communication model perceives human communication as a simultaneous, interdependent process, in which the speaker servers as the listener and the listener as a speaker, in tandem.  It is also symbiotic, that is to say, mutually beneficial to the source and the receiver, since each one exists in relation to the other.  The source of communication, as well as the receiver of the message, are continuously exchanging information in a cyclical pattern. In the same way, the interpreter and the translator, both have dual communicative functions, outputting and inputting messages, be these spoken or written.  Interpreting requires verbal interaction between an interpreter and a speaker in an oral mode—unless it is an interpretation of sight reading of a written document.  Translation invites non-verbal interaction between a translator and a reader in written form.  Given that communication(s) involve speaking, listening, reading, and writing, then interpreting and translation are means of communication(s) and should be associated as communicative processes within the same field; thus granting interpreting and translation the status deserved for the future of the profession as partners in the field of communication(s).
 
INTRODUCTION 
This proposal will present “Interpreting and Translation as Communication Processes for the 21st Century” in order to associate the status of interpreting and translation to existing communication processes and establish the future of the interpreting and translation profession within the field of communication using the Transactional Model of Communication (Barnlund, 1970) as a frame of reference.  Interpreting and translation are both expressions of communication processes in a different way, shape, and form. Consequently, interpreting and translation are to be included, considered, and taught as related disciplines to the field of communication for the future of the profession. 
I want to propose the integration of interpreting and translation in the field of communication because these two disciplines are expressions of human communication processes.  Based upon years of experience as a communicator, who is also an interpreter and translator, I perceive the relationship that interpreting and translation have in communication(s) through speaking, listening, writing, and reading, here and now,  in our everyday world.   
I have been a community college professor teaching Medical Spanish communication(s) to healthcare professionals, as well as Conversational Spanish, English (093): Preparation for College Writing III, English 101, 102, 103, and 105, in DuPage County, Illinois, USA.  I have worked with nurses, therapists, paramedics, physicians, assistants, social workers, volunteers, and administrative personnel at local hospitals and medical training centers in the area who wanted to use Spanish for Communication(s) in a health care setting as interpreters and translators to facilitate communication in Spanish and English for the patients and visitors at their medical facility.  In addition, I have also taught college students taking English courses who enrolled in the Independent Learning Center at the College of DuPage in Glen Ellyn, Illinois. Moreover, as a graduate college student, I have been a volunteer at the Emergency Room of the University of Illinois Hospital in Chicago, Illinois for a study on the delivery of healthcare and medical communication(s) to elderly patients who spoke English and Spanish.  This medical communication(s) study was sponsored by the American Gerontological Association in the United States. Furthermore, I have been a professional interpreter and translator since 1981 while I worked for the Illinois Industrial Commission in Chicago, Illinois during hearing arbitrations due to employment-related injuries suffered by Spanish-speaking workers.  Since then, I have interpreted for other government levels in the United States and miscellaneous business organizations. An interpreter and a translator, both have dual communicative functions, outputting and inputting messages, simultaneously and intertwined, be these spoken or written, to exchange and negotiate meaning with a third party. Interpreting and translation processes are examples of transactional communication(s).
For this presentation and proposal, I have applied the Transactional Model of Communication, (Barnlund, 1970), to include interpreting and translation in the field of communication(s) because it is a dynamic theory which requires interdependent and simultaneous exchange between the participants, be they interpreters, speakers, translators, readers, and writers, to negotiate meaning from one language to another.  In the Essentials of Human Communication (2002), DeVito describes the Transactional process of communication to be a more satisfying view of the exchange in which a person serves simultaneously as speaker and listener.  At the same time that a message is sent, one is also receiving messages from one’s own communication(s) and from the reactions of the other person.  The transactional point of view perceives each person as both speaker and listener, as simultaneously communicating and receiving messages (Watzlawick, Beavin & Jackson, 1967), (Barnlund, 1970), (Wilmont, 1995).  In addition, the transactional view sees the elements of communication as interdependent (never independent).   Each one exists in relation to the others. Interpreting requires verbal interaction between an interpreter, a speaker, and a third party,  in an oral mode—unless it is an interpretation of sight reading of a written document.  Translation invites non-verbal interaction between a translator, a writer, and a reader in written text form.    All the elements of  human communication processes are present in interpreting and translation.   Therefore, interpreting and translation ought to be included in the teaching of communication(s) as integrated disciplines, part of the whole field of communication(s), in order to make these two professions more pervasive and available to the general population as introductions to the fields; that is to say, we may include and offer communication courses in the Communication(s) Department of a learning institution, such as Introduction to Interpreting, Translation 101, which demystify interpreting and translation as totally separate, specialized disciplines, only taught in certain language programs, at certain designated institutions.  The integration of Interpreting and Translation in the Communication(s) curriculum and the Humanities division of higher learning bodies may be an interdisciplinary effort.  By doing so, students have more open options and the flexibility to use communication(s) beyond the scope of what has been defined and to include foreign language skills through interpreting and translation in a global forum, the local community, in the media, the business world, healthcare, the courtroom, at work, at home, etc.                                                                                                      
Including interpreting and translation in the curriculum for communication(s) would popularize these two disciplines and make interpreting and translation more acceptable choices and less ominous subjects of study to the general public specializing in communication(s) at learning institutions.  Communication(s) students would then perceive interpreting and translation as part of their curriculum and also as viable job options and skills to acquire in the 21st century, along with language skills, in addition to their mother tongue.  By offering interpreting and translation as part of the communication(s) curriculum program, learning institutions improve the students’ opportunities and job marketability in the field of communication(s) for the new millennium.  Why not integrate interpreting and translation as communication processes for the 21st century?   

Given that communication involves speaking, listening, reading, and writing, then interpreting and translation are means of communication and should be associated as communicative processes within the same field; thus, granting interpreting and translation the status it deserves for the future of the profession as partners in the field of communication(s).

 
What is communication? 
Communication is interaction among people to convey a message.  The communication process involves verbal and non-verbal dynamics to promote understanding and cooperation.  It is speaking, listening, reading, and writing.  Communication is also imaging through graphics and visuals in the media. (Hung, ICTFL 2000)   Human communication is the process by which people exchange information, (Hung, ICTFL 2001), through languages and otherwise.  Foreign languages promote understanding through interpersonal communication on a one-to-one basis, people-to-people, verbally and non-verbally, using interpreting and translation as forms of communication, from one language to another.   Languages are implemented through interpreting and translation in the fields of technology, research, and development throughout diverse professional disciplines.  Thus, languages become communication tools in the 21st century by means of interpreting and translation.  
 
How are interpreting and translation related to communication? 

 

Interpreting and translation are communication processes which involve speaking, listening, reading, and writing to express and negotiate messages between participants in the communication exchange.

 Given that these are modes of communication in our global and local community, (Hung, ICTFL 2001), interpreting and translation of languages are to be perceived as communication processes for the 21st century.   Whether we are at work, in the courtroom, during doctor-patient interviews, at the immigration  office, conferences, business meetings, etc., we need to speak, listen, read, and write in any language to communicate.  For instance, other applications of language interpreting and translation uses can be seen in satellite and global positioning systems, world-wide assistance telecommunication(s) centers; geo conferencing, videoconferencing, videophones, teleconferencing; internet delivery of instruction on-line; email tutorials; intranet web-based education; audio computer-based tests for ESL listening skills, remote learning, multimedia, etc. Interpreting through spoken communication is used simultaneously or consecutively, on a regular basis in the business world, consulate offices, legal settings, in the medical field, technically, for liaison and group escorts, telephone transactions, conferences, etc.  Translation is also a written mode, a process of communication and a language tool on-line, on the internet and the world wide web, through machines, electronically, commercially, legally, medically, and otherwise.      Ian Mason has defined spoken dialogue interpreting in Triadic Exchanges as a generic term covering diverse fields of interpreting which have in common the basic feature of face-to-face interaction between three parties: the interpreter and (at least) two others, a source-speaker, a receiver-listener.  The communication exchange and/or transaction consists of spontaneous dialogue interaction, involving turn-taking conversation, in two languages, a source and a target. It is usually goal-directed in the sense that there is some outcome or message to be negotiated.  The interpreter is perceived as one of the parties to this three-way exchange, in which each participant’s moves can affect each participant and thus the outcome of the event.  The interpreter is a “critical link” in spoken triadic communication. Translation as a communication process also involves a three-way transaction for meaning between the writer, the reader, and the translator in a written format–it is a semantics exchange.  According to Random House Webster’s Dictionary, a translation is a rendering of the same ideas in a different language from the original text.  A translator communicates the writer’s message to the reader from one language to another through written text.  In the same way that a computer compiler decodes and encodes data from a high level language to a machine language, a human translator decodes and encodes the assigned meaning of symbols from a source language to a target language. 
 
From where is the Transactional Model of Communication derived? 
Dean C. Barnlund discussed a Transactional Model of Communication in 1970 while working with J. Akin, A. Goldberg, G. Myers, and J. Stewart on their research using Computer Compilers as seen in Language Behavior: A book of readings in communication, (pp.43-61), published by The Hague: Mouton. For our purposes, a Computer Compiler is a software that translates a program written from a high-level language into another language, usually a machine-based language, by means of a “compiler”, that is a “translator”.  Compilers in computer-based formats convert a program, data, code, etc., from one form to another, that is to say, a Fortran program into assembly-based machine language, according to Random House Webster’s Unabridged Dictionary. 
 
In the 21st century interpreters and translators might as well be human “compilers” and/or information processors from one language to another.  Interpreters and translators facilitate communication(s) from one language to another on behalf of others.  These communicators convert a message from the source to the receiver, from one language to another, in a triadic exchange of information.  Although some people address interpreters as translators interchangeably, we know that interpreters work primarily in a spoken/aural format and translators function primarily in a written/visual mode.  Just as a computer compiler translates a software program written from a high-level language into another, interpreters and translators process an exchange of semantics information simultaneously from the source speaker/writer to the receiver/reader, from one language to another, in a verbal or written format.  Interpreters and translators negotiate the meaning and content of a message formulated by the source and/or the receiver in sync with the transactional model of communication(s) based upon computer compilers (Barnlund, 1970).  
In addition to the application of the transactional theory to communication(s), Ling Liu, Calton Pu, and Robert Meersman have also researched and developed a computer-based Transactional Activity Model for Organizing Open-Ended Cooperative Flow Activities.  This computational application is based upon a number of extended transaction models which have been proposed to support information-intensive applications, such as CAD, computer-aided drafting, CAM, distributed operating systems, and software development It is a mathematical algorithm which integrates two mergeable activities to ensure a merged history from two correct histories.  It establishes the existent dependencies between two activities.  These activities are structured programs that exchange information with other activities, databases, files, and users.  The system covers a family of dynamic activity restructuring operations, as well as other important features of the Transactional Activity Model (TAM). 

CONCLUSION

 
This proposal has presented “Interpreting and Translation as Communication(s) Processes for the 21st Century” in order to associate the status of interpreting and translation to existing communication processes and establish the future of the interpreting and translation profession within the field of communication(s) using the Transactional Model of Communication (Barnlund, 1970) as a frame of reference.  As you know, interpreting and translation are both expressions of communication(s) processes in a different way, shape, and form.  Consequently, interpreting and translation are to be included, considered, and taught as related disciplines to the field of communication(s) for the future of the profession. As we have discussed earlier, the transactional model of communication perceives human communication as a simultaneous, interdependent process, in which the speaker serves as a listener and the listener as a speaker, in tandem.  It is also symbiotic, that is to say, mutually beneficial to the source and the receiver since each one exists in relation to the other. The source of the communication, as well as the receiver of the message, both are continuously exchanging information in a cyclical pattern In the same way, the interpreter and the translator, both have dual communicative functions, outputting and inputting messages, be these spoken or written.  Interpreting requires verbal interaction between an interpreter and a speaker in an oral mode—unless it is an interpretation of sight reading of a written document.  Translation invites non-verbal interaction between a translator and a reader in written form.  Given that communication(s) involve speaking, listening, reading, and writing, then interpreting and translation are means of communication(s) and should be associated as communicative processes within the same field; thus granting interpreting and translation the status deserved for the future of the profession as partners in the field of communication(s). Although I have taught at the community college level for many years, I am not aware of any learning institutions that currently include Interpreting and Translation in the Communication(s) curriculum program.  That is one of the reasons why I decided to present this proposal at this FIT 2002 conference focusing on Translation: New Ideas for a New Century in Vancouver, British Columbia, CANADA.  As far as I am aware, Interpreting and Translation are not widely taught nor included in the curriculum programs at institutions of higher learning.  As far as I know, there are designated institutions world-wide that teach Interpreting and Translation.  However, these two disciplines are not readily available now as courses of study to the general public or communication(s) enthusiasts at institutions of higher learning.  Perhaps my proposal to regard Interpreting and Translation as Communication Processes in the 21st Century will note and highlight the need to include and integrate Interpreting and Translation in the field of Communication(s) at academic institutions for the benefit of future communicators in the new millennium. 
 
REFERENCES AND SOURCES 
Barnlund, Dean C.  (1970) A Transactional model of communication.  In J. Akin, A. Goldberg, G. Myers, and                J. Stewart (Compilers), Language behavior: A book of readings in communication, (pp.43-61).                The Hague: Mouton, The Netherlands. Baron, Sara, M.A., M.S.  http://www.lilb.umb.edu~sara  (2001) COMSTU 200, Introduction to Communication(s),                University of Massachusetts, Boston, USA                DeVito, Joseph A.  (2002) Essentials of Human Communication.  Fourth Edition.  Hunter College.  The City of                New York.  Boston: Allyn & Bacon, A Pearson Education Company, USA. Diccionario de Informática Inglés-Español.  Glosario de Términos Informáticos.  Sexta Edición.  (1985)                ParaInfo Madrid.  Olivetti Centro de Formación Personal. Hung, Gardenia C., M.A.  Conversational Spanish for Business(1997-2000) Business Professional Institute.                College of DuPage, Glen Ellyn, Illinois, USA. Program Managers Kim Ramey and Donna Marchant.                Hung, Gardenia C., M.A.  Spanish for Healthcare Professionals.  Bilingual Resources by Small Group   Collaboration.  Winter 2000.  College of DuPage, Continuing Education for Healthcare Professionals.                Glen Ellyn, Illinois, USA.  Prepared and edited medical interpreting and translation information for                healthcare professionals in DuPage County, Illinois from 1997 through 2000. Hung, Gardenia C., M.A.  Spanish for Healthcare Professionals & Service Learning.  Winter 1999.  Prepared for               Kathy Hennessy, Service Learning Coordinator, College of DuPage, and  Continuing Education for                Healthcare Professionals, Glen Ellyn, Illinois, USA. Hung, Gardenia C., M.A.  Spanish Tutoring(1999-2000) Continuing Education Program.                College of DuPage, Glen Ellyn, Illinois, USA.                 Hung, Gardenia C., M.A.  “Communicate: Speaking, Listening, Reading, and Writing in Foreign Languages”.                Presentation at the Illinois Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages Conference 2000, Friday,                October 20, 2000, Carlyle Room at the Wyndham Hotel, Itasca, Illinois, USA.   
 
REFERENCES AND SOURCES 
Hung, Gardenia C., M.A.  “How Are Languages Used as Communication Tools in the 21st Century?”.                Presentation at the Illinois Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages Conference 2001, Saturday,                October 20, 2001, Barrington Room at the Wyndham Hotel, Itasca, Illinois, USA. International Book Distributors, ibd ltd., Freek Lankhof, P.O. Box 467, Kinderhook, NY 12106 USA Internet Website, http://www.americantranslators.org/divisions/FLD/fldfaqs.htm                 FAQs about Interpreting, Gardenia C. Hung, M.A., (1999) French Language Division, Frequently Asked                Questions about Interpreting, American Translators Association, USA. Kelling, George W.  (1975) Language: Mirror, Tool, and Weapon.  Chicago: Nelson-Hall.  Levinson, Paul.  (2001) Digital McLuhan.  A Guide to the Information Millennium.  London and New York:               Routledge, Taylor & Francis. Liu, Ling and C. Pu.  A transactional activity model for organizing open-ended cooperative activities.              Technical Report TR96-11.  Department of Computer Science, University of Alberta, Canada                http://citeseer.nj.nec.com/43023.html Logan, Robert K.  (2000) THE SIXTH LANGUAGE.  Learning a Living in the Internet Age.  Toronto:  Stoddart                                                                                                                                                                                    Mason, Ian, Editor.  (2001) Triadic Exchanges.  Studies in Dialogue Interpreting.  United Kingdom:          St. Jerome Publishing.  Edited by Ian Mason, Heriot-Watt University, Edingburgh Centre for                           Translation and Interpreting Studies in Scotland, United Kingdom.Mason, Ian.  (1997)
                                                                                                                                                                            The Translator as Communicator.  Routledge. Mikkelson, Holly.  (1994) A Training Program for Spanish/English Medical Interpreting.                Spreckles, California: ACEBO. Nuevo Espasa Ilustrado 2000.  Diccionario enciclopédico.  Espasa Calpe, S.A. España. Petit Larousse Illustré.  (1987) Larousse: Paris, France. Public Speaking Module One.  Public Speaking as a Communication Process.  Notes from the Instructor.                On-Line Learning.  Web-based instruction for Communications Models and Theories. Random House Webster’s Unabridged Dictionary (1998) New York, USA. 

Consulting Media Arts Communications©2012 Gardenia Hung. 

All Rights Reserved.


During August 4-11, 2002, international translators and travelers flocked to the Pacific Northwest and lived a “full Vancouver” stay at the Fairmont Waterfront Hotel by the harbour. FIT 2002 sponsored the XVI World Congress in Canada to host this event for the first time in North America, “Translation: New Ideas for a New Century”. The proceedings have been published by FIT, www.fit-ift.org  The Secrétariat headquarters is now based in Switzerland.

On my return visit to Vancouver, I was looking forward to seeing again the World’s First Steam Clock in Historical Gastown, only a few blocks away from the Fairmont. The Steam Clock is a quaint, Victorian timepiece powered by old-fashioned ingenuity, simple, basic “steam”, originating from an underground steam heating system which also heats local buildings and the underground shopping mall, the Pacific Centre.

The Gastown Steam Clock chimes Victorian times, every quarter hour, blows its whistle, and spews a visible puffy cloud of steam on the hour while it plays its Westminster chimes. Its puffy steam whistle is reminiscent of an old fashioned train locomotive at the turn of the 19th century, like those used in the first Canadian Pacific Railway and the steam-powered ferry boats to Vancouver Island.

Federation of International Translators Conference in 2002— “Interpreting & Translation: Communication Processes for the 21st Century”

My proposal was selected to be presented as part of Translation: New Ideas for a New Century among others sponsored by the Federation of International Translators (FIT) in 2002, at the XVI World Congress in Vancouver, B.C., Canada. I presented the thesis for “Interpreting & Translation as Communication Processes for the 21st Century”.

This new idea proposes to associate the status of interpreting and translation to existing communication processes and establish the future of the interpreting and translation profession within the field of communication using the Transactional Model of Communication (Barnlund, 1970) as a frame of reference. Interpreting and translation are both expressions of communication processes in a different way, shape and form.

Consequently, interpreting and translation are to be included, considered and taught as related disciplines to the field of communications, for the future of the profession.

The Transactional Model of Communication perceives human communications as a simultaneous, interdependent process, in which the speaker serves as the listener and the listener as the speaker, in tandem. It is also symbiotic, that is to say mutually beneficial to the source and the receiver, since each one exists in relation to the other. The source, as well s the receiver, are continuously exchanging information in a cyclical pattern.

In the same way, the interpreter and the translator both have dual communicative functions, outputting and inputting messages, be these spoken and written. Interpreting requires verbal interaction between an interpreter and a speaker in an oral mode—unless it is an interpretation of sight reading of a written document. Translation invites non-verbal interaction between a translator and a reader in written form. Given that communication involves speaking, listening, reading and writing, then interpreting and translation are means of communication and should be associated as communicative processes within the same field; thus granting interpreting and translation the status deserved for the future of the profession, as partners in the field of communication, in the 21st Century.

Another excellent excuse and alibi to visit Vancouver, B.C. is to see my Chinese Grandmother, cousins, and relatives living there. Although I do not see them often enough, I always look forward to visiting with them again whenever I return to Gum-shan or the Gold Mountain in Canada.

My Chinese Grandmother is an octogenarian who is well-loved by all her grandchildren, children and relatives alike. I am glad to have seen her in 2002 in the company of my cousins Gary, Diane, Wayne, Harry, and the entire family. Gary was so kind to me in driving to the Vancouver International Airport, early, early on Sunday morning, so I would not miss my AA return flight to St. Louis-Chicago. I am very grateful that he is an early-riser and a good driver in the morning to pick me up at the Fairmont Waterfront without fail. Thank You, Gary!

Grandma in Vancouver must have been born at the turn-of-the 20th century, during Victorian times. I met her in my childhood, during her visit to Santiago de Cuba, Cuba from Hong Kong, China and Vancouver, Canada.

My other Grandmother also remembered me well as a loving child and helpful confidante. I used to help her with her gardening chores, knitting yarn tasks, cooking, at her boutique store, and household errands. The other day, I remembered her also because I found the beautiful mint green shawl she crocheted for me with long tassels at the end—this Victorian mint green shawl is a symbol of her love for Irish green heirlooms and handcrafts, for she was born at the beginning of March 1901, around St. Patrick’s Day, at the turn-of-the 20th century also. A Freemason friend told me that this heirloom mint green shawl is a symbol of her Irish love and wish for me… It is still a sign of Victorian times in the 21st century to wear a shawl over a nightgown on a drafty evening or morning.

It is nice to remember our elderly grandmothers and grandfathers, though they are old and weathered with age and health care concerns. Their presence in our lives always brings fond memories of our childhood years, their presents for us, and the promises made on our behalf to others who minded us a children and during our growing up years.

My Grandmother’s minty green shawl is a reminder for me of a promise made on my behalf to another who remembers March as St. Patrick’s Day. I hope that her promise comes true in 2003! — Gardenia C. Hung

Victoria: The Butchart Gardens in Vancouver Island, B.C.

At Tsawwassen, passing Point Roberts at the 49th Parallel, which borders Canada and the U.S.A., the B.C. Ferry Boats loaded with cars, motorcycles, tour buses, and passengers, cross the Strait of Georgia all together to the Saanich Peninsula in Vancouver & the Gulf Islands and dock at the Ferry Terminal in Swartz Bay. Upon arrival, all vehicles and passengers land and drive away through Sidney, Saanichton, and the island flora countryside to the Butchart Gardens—originally a limestone quarry opened for public display in 1904. The exotic hybrid flower varieties, the vibrant colors, and lush greenery, entice gardeners and flower enthusiasts worldwide to visit this forest paradise and relax.

Localized watering, special plant nourishment and daily care are shown by the local gardeners who display the result of their labor in all its flower splendor and wonderful beauty.

Victorian Times (1837-1901)

In June 1837, young Victoria became Queen of Britain at age 18, and many changes took place along with her reign until 1901. Queen Victoria defined her time, trends, fashions, mores, world exploration, navigation, progress, thought, and places, as a turning point in the history of Europe and the world. The 19th century is also known as Victorian Times; in turn, these gave way to the Industrial Revolution. Victorian times marked a transition point between the old and the new modern era in Europe and the Americas, driven by new thoughts, ideas, and man-made machines during the 20th century.

Vancouver Island in British Columbia also has claimed the name of Victoria for its provincial capital since 1868, originally known as Fort Victoria—the first European settlement on Vancouver Island and the westernmost trading outpost of the British-owned Hudson’s Bay Co. in 1843. Victoria offers visitors a glimpse of the 19th century with its restored historical architecture, Victorian flower gardens, harbour walks and quaint surroundings. Traveling back in time to Downtown Victoria, set the tone of my historical journey, past the Miniature World Museum, the world of Dickens, the world’s largest model railroad, and the greatest small-scale circus.

Then on Government Street is the Fairmont Empress, an architectural relic built at the turn-of-the century in 1908 by the Canadian Pacific Railway during the Canadian Gold Rush.

High Tea at the Empress Fairmont on Government St.

The Crystal Room at the Empress Fairmont boasts a lovely, sparkling Victorian crystal chandelier and old world elegance, worth remembering at High Tea, around 4 o’clock in the afternoon—whenever the Library has been reserved to the fullest. Afternoon tea at an Edwardian grand château hotel is a memorable experience, harborside on Government St., Victoria, across from the Parliament Buildings . Designed by Francis Rattenbury, famous British architect, the Empress Fairmont is the historical landmark of the Canadian Pacific Railway at the turn of the 20th century.
High Tea at the Empress includes top quality, house blend, light, delicate tea, a substantial variety of finger sandwiches—smoked salmon, cucumber, carrot and ginger, watercress—tea cakes, fruit tarts, fresh berries and cream, scones, strawberry preserves, honey, and thick Jersey cream. Late afternoon tea is meant to quench the appetite in between meals and entertain the palate before dinnertime and after a long Victorian stroll by the Inner Harbor Walk.
Vintage photos line the Lobby Entrance as a time line of prominent visitors and dignitaries—the historical archives are downstairs, open to the public anytime.

During the Vancouver 2010 Winter Olympics in British Columbia, I have been reminiscing about my travels to Canada. The first time I visited British Columbia, I landed in Vancouver Island for an international volleybal tournament with my younger brother and his volleyball sports fanatics in 1990. The trip to Vancouver, B.C. in Canada was a good reason to visit my Chinese relatives Barry Ng and family with the Chinese Grandmother, and Diane Chong and her family in Richmond, B.C. At that time, I went up hiking to Grouse Mountain in the skilift. Grouse Mountain is the current site for the Vancouver 2010 Winter Olympics televised by NBC 5. This morning, I was watching the gold medalist athletes performing and the travel tour to Victoria.

Since then, I visited Victoria in 2002, during the Conference for the Federation of International Translators at the Fairmont Hotel in Vancouver. At that time, I went on a tour bus to Victoria and crossed the waters on the Ferry Boat. We went to the Butchart Gardens in Victoria and afterwards, I had High Tea at the Fairmont Empress Hotel, in the Crystal Room. The Fairmont Empress offers High Tea to guests, visitors and friends in the afternoon, around 4 o’clock, in the Crystal Room–overlooking the harbour. The entrance corridor displayed vintage photographs of the British Royal Family featuring King George VI with his wife and Princess Elizabeth II during their transatlantic voyage to North America.

INDIGENOUS TOTEM POLES IN VANCOUVER B.C. CANADA

THE VANCOUVER 2010 WINTER OLYMPICS HONOR CANADIAN NATIVE FIRST NATIONS DESIGNS AND MOTIFS IN THE ENGRAVINGS OF THE MEDALS. DURING A VISIT TO STANLEY PARK, THE NATIVE TOTEM POLES AT FIRST SIGHT IMPRESS YOU WITH THE ARTISTRY FOR NATURE AND FOLK ARTS AND CRAFTS. THE LARGE CANADIAN GEESE ROAMED TALL AND WILD LIKE THE CHILDREN AT STANLEY PARK IN VANCOUVER, B.C. CANADA.

Consulting Media Arts Communications©2012 Gardenia Hung.  All Rights Reserved.


The month of December is always full of surprises, amazing holiday miracles, and wonderful thoughts from family, friends and associates…wherever they are or may be. Early in December 2011, I received a colorful and memorable Happy Birthday! Gift Card from Tampa, Florida…all the way to the Village of Lombard, where I live in Du Page County, Illinois. When I opened the envelope, I read “Happy Birthday!” from Carnival. Wow! Someone thoughtful remembered my Anniversary Birthday in December 2011, and forwarded their best wishes with a birthday celebration aboard a Carnival ship for an 8-day /7-Night Cruise vacation for 2 with an outside cabin, leaving from any major port in the U.S.A—approximate value is $1299 and No Purchase Necessary. What A Big Surprise for my birthday! It included a Bonus Gift for Two Round-trip Airfares leaving from or going to any major airport in the continental U.S.A.—this offer is not redeemable for cash. Right in the middle of the winter Christmas holidays, I just could not get away…to Carnival. Especially when Travel over major holidays is not permitted and some restrictions apply.

So, the New Year 2012 Jubilee celebrations arrived in January with the New Chinese Year of the Dragon in tow to celebrate all the anniversaries that come up throughout this year. I have not forgotten about Carnival Cruise in the middle of the Midwest snowstorms we are having in Illinois. Carnival Cruise offers a wide selection of travel options with Imagination to visit Miami, Key West in Florida and Cozumel, Mexico in the Caribbean. Or, I must travel Destiny to Ocho Rios in Jamaica, then go along to Grand Cayman in the Cayman Islands. If I have enough time and energy, Valor can take me to Cozumel, Mexico, Ocho Rios, Jamaica, and Grand Cayman in the Cayman Islands. To sail in Glory, there are also ports to see in Nassau for the Bahamas, St. Thomas USVI, San Juan Puerto Rico, and Grand Turk, which includes La Romana in the Dominican Republic travelling the eastern Caribbean. If I take Liberty, there are options to see Cozumel, Mexico, Belize, Mahogany Bay, Isla Roatan, Grand Cayman in the Cayman Islands. Otherwise, Carnival Glory can take me to Boston Massachusetts or New York, to St. John New Brunswick, Halifax, NS, Sydney, NS, Canada, and return via Portland Maine back to port in Boston Massachusetts. The whole idea for a Carnival Cruise Anniversary is very exciting during 2012.

I am still wondering, “Where is the Carnival Cruise to Cuba, the Pearl of the Antilles and the center of the Caribbean as a destination port along Carnival Cruise itineraries?” If Carnival Cruises travel with Imagination, Destiny, Valor, Liberty, and Glory as far east as the coasts of Cozumel, Belize, Mahogany Bay, Isla Roatan, Grand Cayman in the Cayman Islands and makes port in Ocho Rios Jamaica; then Carnival Cruise can make port in Santiago de Cuba, in the island of Cuba, some day! “Why is not Carnival Cruise making port in Santiago de Cuba or La Habana, Cuba?”
Copyright 2012 Communications, Languages & Culture, Inc.
Consulting Media Arts Communications. All Rights Reserved.


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